Sikkim is located in an ecological hotspot of lower Himalayas, which is one of the three Eco regions of India. The snow covered mountains and lush green valleys are features of Sikkim. In Sikkim’s Forest large range of fauna and flora are found. Sikkim state also has wide variety of plants, from tropical species to temperate, alpine and tundra. Nearly 81% area of Sikkim comes under the administration of its forest department.
Sikkim becomes home to about 5,000 species of flowering plants, 515 rare orchids, 60 primula species, 36 rhododendron species, 11 oak varieties, 23 bamboo varieties, 16 conifer species, 362 types of fern and ferns allies, 8 tree ferns and 424 medicinal plants. Christmas flower which is named as Poinsettia having different varieties are also found in abundance in the mountainous state. Official flower of Sikkim is Noble Dendrobium and rhododendron is state tree.
In Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests of lower altitudes of Sikkim , Orchids, figs laurel, bananas, sal tree and bamboo tree grows. In Easter Himalayan broadleaf forests oaks, chestnuts, maples, birches, alders, and magnolias grow in large numbers as well as in Himalayan subtropical pine forests, dominated by Chir pine. Alpine type vegetation is found between altitudes of 3,500 to 5,000 meters. In lower altitudes are found juniper, pine, firs, cypresses and rhododendrons from eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests. Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows is home to a broad variety of rhododendrons and wildflowers.
The fauna of Sikkim include snow leopard, musk deer, Himalayan Tahr, red panda, Himalayan marmot, Himalayan serow, Himalayan goral, muntjac, common langur, Asian black bear, clouded leopard, marbled cat, leopard cat, dhol, Tibetian wolf, hog badger, binturong and Himalayan jungle cat. Yaks are more commonly found in alpine zone, mainly reared for their milk, meat and as a beast of burden.
The avifauna of Sikkim contains the Impeyan pheasant, crimson horned pheasant, snow partridge, Tibetan snowcock, bearded vulture and griffon vulture, golden eagles, quails, plovers, woodcocks, sandpipers, pigeons, old world flycatchers, babblers and robins. Sikkim also has more than 550species of birds.
Sikkim also has rich diversity of butterflies. Approximately 1,438 butterflies founded in Indian subcontinent, 695 have been recorded in Sikkim. These include endangered Kaiser-i-hind, the Yellow Gorgon and Bhutan Glory. ‘Sikkim Packages’ covered all these beautiful flora and Fauna in Sikkim state.